Dec value: 103
Hex value: 67
Minimum tool requirement to break: None
Blast resistance: 5
Maximum stack 64
Melons can be grown from melon seeds, found in chests in abandoned mineshafts, but don’t otherwise occur in minecraft. Destroying mature melon stalks will drop up to 3 melon seeds, earlier stages have a chance to drop a seed, but it’s usually better to wait. Harvesting a melon block will splice it into 3-7 melon slices, which can be used to either create new seeds, create a melon block (requires 9 slices) or they can be eaten, restoring 1 food bar per slice.
Melon blocks cannot be crafted back into melon slices, but they can be destroyed, which will drop 3-7 melon slices again, which makes this an inefficient way to store melon slices. The best tool to harvest melons is an axe. Melon seeds require farmland to grow and will grow faster on hydrated farmland, but the stalks will not turn into a melon block themselves. Once the stems are fully grown, a melon block can spawn on any block directly next to it, but it will only spawn 1 melon block per stalk. Any adjacent stalk will attach itself to that spawned melon block.
Melon stalks have 8 stages of growth from planting to maturity. The first 7 are all green and vary in size. The last stage is brown, which makes it stand out a lot. Pumpkin and melon stalks look exactly the same, which can make it difficult to extinguish one from another, but melon stalks will only attach themselves to melons. Note that custom texture packs may have made all stages the same color, which makes it difficult to tell if a stalk has fully matured. Bonemeal can be used to instantly grow a stalk into a fully matured stalk, but cannot be used to instantly grow melons.
The basics of growing melons are very simple. Melons will grow faster if the stalks have more spots they can spawn melons on. This is only useful for frequent harvests though, as any adjacent stalk attaches itself to a spawned (or placed) melon, meaning up to 4 stalks can be attached to a single melon block. All those stalks will stop trying to spawn another melon block.
If you’re looking for high yields without having to harvest often, the best thing is to make sure the melons can only spawn on 1 or 2 spots, preferably in rows to prevent other stalks from attaching themselves to the same melon block. There are various ways to farm melons, both land efficiently as time efficiently, as well as fully automated.